Analog and digital Filters

Analog and digital Filters

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       Ver. 3.2 / 2009

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In this eBook with more than 100 sides the basics of analog and digital filters will be described. The filter design and analysis will be done with the FREE program Filter Free 3.0 and Spectra from


This eBook is a practical training that is we will start with the design and implementation of simply analog filter and after that with digital filter.

The handling of the tool Filter Free 3.0 will be explained during the filter design. Sometimes there some films that explain the handling of the tool.

No theory only so much mathematics as necessary for the understanding.

Analog and digital Filters

This software is something special. Not only because there is a powerful free version but you get one of the best tool with that you can design analog and digital filter. The free version is limited for the order of the filter and you can not generate the implementation like C-code. With the 20-day test version you also try this features.



Analog Filter

 What is a filter?
 Properties of spectrum
 The tool Spectra
 Logarithm and decibel
 Types of filter
 Filter properties and design
 Filter design with the tool Filter Free
 Filter analysis
 Amplitude characteristic over frequencies for LP filter
 Phase characteristic for low pass filter order 1
 Phase delay for filter higher order
 Transfer function
 Step-, Ramp and Impulse response
 Design a signal
 Design analog passive low pass filter order 1
 How to adjust the cut-off-frequency?
 Low pass filter order 1 in time domain
 Implementation of passive filter
 Analog passive low pass filter order 2
 Analog passive low pass filter order 3
 Filter Type
 Filter type
 Analog passive high-pass-filter
 Analog passive band-pass filter
 Analog passive band-stop filter
 Stability and robustness
 Analog active filter
 Analog active low pass 1st, 2nd and 3rd order
 Analog active high-pass order 1, order 2 and order 3 filter
 Analog active band-pass-filter of order 1, 2 and 3
 Analog active band-stop filter of order 1, 2 and 3
 Analog passive filters with the tool Filter Solution (20 day version)
 Analog passive filter order 3 and robustness
 Analog active filter with the tool Filter Solution
 Tx line filter
 Analog passive or active filter?

 Digital Filter

 Digital and analog filters
 A/D-converter and crystal oscillator
 Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) and FFT
 Periodic signals I
 Periodic signals II
 Windows methods
 Why to show only the half of the spectrum?
 Sampling theorem
 Antialiasing filter
 Example antialiasing filter
 Further signal distortions
 Current and old values
 Simple mathematical operations
 Mean value (low pass)
 Mean value (high pass)
 D/A-converter reconstruction
 Attributes of digital filters
 FIR and IIR filter
 On-line and off-Line signal processing


 Introduction FIR-filter
 FIR Low-Pass-Filter adjustment
 FIR LP-Filter 2 Taps frequency response and transfer function
 FIR TP-Filter 2 Taps => time response and pole-zero plot
 FIR LP-Filter 2 until 10 taps => frequency response  and transfer function
 FIR LP-Filter 2 until 10 taps => time plot and pole-zero plot
 Digital FIR-high-pass filter 2 to 10 taps
 Digital FIR-BP filter 3 to 10 taps
 Digital FIR-band-eliminating filter 3 to 10 taps
 Group delay time
 FIR-Filter design
 Window functions
 FIR-Filter coefficients
 Floating and integer
 Integer scaling
 FIR-Filter coefficients scaling on integer
 FIR-Filter structure
 FIR-Filter implementation with Filter Solution
 LP1 FIR-Filter and Filter Solution
 FIR-filter C-function
 Starting values


 Basics of IIR-filters
 IIR-Filter characteristics
 Low-pass IIR-filter adjustment
 LP1 IIR-Filter frequency response and time response
 LP1 IIR-Filter transfer function and pole-zero plot
 LP2 and LP3 IIR-Filter frequency and time response
 LP2 and LP3 IIR-Filter pole-zero plot and transfer function
 HP of order 1, 2, 3 IIR-Filter
 BP of order 1, 2, 3 IIR-Filter
 BS of order 1, 2, 3 IIR-Filter
 Phase response and group delay
 Stability and robustness
 Noise and random signals
 IIR-Filter design
 Pole-zero plots
 Direct structure 1
 Direct structure 2
 Cascade structure
 Parallel structure
 LP1 IIR-Filter and Filter Solution
 IIR-Filter C-function implementation
 LP1 filter with on-line adjustable cut off frequency
 LP1 filter with on-line adjustable cut off frequency example

 Analog and digital filter

 Analog or digital
 Analog passive or active
 FIR- and IIR-Filter
 Adaptive digital filter
 FPAA (Field Programmable Analogue Arrays)



Last Update: 22.01.2021

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